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共赏诗词之美(72)

桃源行
Song of peach blossom land
---王维
---Wang Wei

渔舟逐水爱山春,两岸桃花夹古津。
A fisherman loved vernal hills and winding stream,
His boat between the shores, he saw peach blossoms beam.

坐看红树不知远,行尽青溪不见人。
He knew not how far he’d gone, charmed by blooming scene,
Up to the end of the stream not a man was seen.

山口潜行始隈隩,山开旷望旋平陆。
At the foot of a hill he found a winding way,
Beyond the hills a plain extended far, far away.

遥看一处攒云树,近入千家散花竹。
Viewed from afar, the forest seemed to scrape the sky,
Bamboos and flowers scattered in houses nearby.

樵客初传汉姓名,居人未改秦衣服。
A woodman told him a name used long, long ago,
People were dressed, in a style now no one would know.

居人共住武陵源,还从物外起田园。
As they had lived together in Peach Blossom Land,
Beyond the bustle fields were tilled with plough in hand.

月明松下房栊静,日出云中鸡犬喧。
Under moonlit pines cots looked quiet in the dark,
Up to sunlit clouds cocks’ crow was heard with dogs’ bark.

惊闻俗客争来集,竞引还家问都邑。
Curious about the stranger, people came from up and down,
Led him to their cottages and asked about the town.

平明闾巷扫花开,薄暮渔樵乘水入。
Fallen petals on the lane were swept clean by day,
At dusk fishermen and woodsmen on homeward way.

初因避地去人间,及至成仙遂不还。
Their fathers left the war-torn land to flee from woe,
This fairyland was found, away they would not go.

峡里谁知有人事,世中遥望空云山。
Deep in the vale, no one cared about world affair;
Gazing afar, they longed for cloud and mountain air.

不疑灵境难闻见,尘心未尽思乡县。
Knowing not such fairy land was hard to he refound,
The fisherman longed to go back to his native ground.

出洞无论隔山水,辞家终拟长游衍。
He left the place and passed over mountains and streams,
But how could he forget the scene of his dear dreams?

自谓经过旧不迷,安知峰壑今来变。
He thought, having come once, he would not go astray,
Without knowing peak and stream would change on the way.

当时只记入山深,青溪几度到云林。
Last time he came, he only knew the mountain deep,
But memory of cloudy way he did not keep.

春来遍是桃花水,不辨仙源何处寻。
When spring came, everywhere he saw peach blossoms nice,
But where could he find again his lost paradise?

右丞天纵奇才,写下这首桃源行时尚未加冠,让我这快活到他两倍年岁的油腻大叔倍感汗颜。
与五柳先生长于叙事,讲究文理文气的散文桃花源记相比,这首乐府没有具体的故事,也没有交待清楚的时间、地点、人物、事件。全诗着重突出了一个个的画面,造成诗的意境,调动读者的想象力,去想象、玩味那画面以外的东西,并从中获得一种美的感受。
所谓“诗中有画”,果不其然。

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共赏诗词之美(71)

江城子·湖上与张先同赋时闻弹筝
Riverside Town On the Lake
---苏轼
---Su Shi

凤凰山下雨初晴。
It turns fine after rain below the Phoenix Hill,

水风清。晚霞明。
Waves and wind light,
Rainbow clouds bright

一朵芙蕖、开过尚盈盈。
A lotus flower past full bloom beams with smile still.

何处飞来双白鹭?
Where comes in flight
A pair of egrets white

如有意,慕娉婷。
As if inclined to care
For maidens fair.

忽闻江上弄哀筝。
Suddenly on the stream music comes to the ear.

苦含情。遣谁听?
Who would not hear Such feeling drear?

烟敛云收、依约是湘灵。
Away clouds and mist clear;
The Spirit of River Xiang seems to appear.

欲待曲终寻取问,
When music ends, I would inquire for the lutist dear.

人不见,数峰青。
She seems to disappear,
Only leaving peaks clear.

第三首江城子,讲的是大胡子任杭州通判时与当时已八十余岁的著名词人张先同游西湖的事儿。
这位老先生年长他四十七岁,作品之前也说过不少。
东坡在杭州,一日游西湖,见湖心有一彩舟渐近,中有一女风韵娴雅,方鼓筝,二客竞目送之。一曲未终,人翩然不见。公因作此词戏之,情趣盎然。
上片写湖上景,由雨后初晴的凤凰山写到湖上的清风、天边的晚霞、盈盈的荷花、飞翔的白鹭,似乎在描绘一幅杭州西湖风景图;下片写闻弹筝,先是写筝声之哀婉,再由筝声转写弹筝人,化用“湘灵鼓瑟”典故,既喻弹筝者有湘灵之美,又营造出凄迷的意境。

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共赏诗词之美(70)

石鱼湖上醉歌
Drinking on Stone Fish Lake
---元结
---Yuan Jie

序:漫叟以公田米酿酒,因休暇,则载酒于湖上,时取一醉。欢醉中,据湖岸,引臂向鱼取酒,使舫载之,偏饮坐者。意疑倚巴丘酌于君山之上,诸子环洞庭而坐,酒舫泛泛然触波涛而往来者。乃作歌以长之。

石鱼湖,似洞庭,
On stone fish lake as on Dongting I gaze my fill.

夏水欲满君山青。
On brimming summer water as on verdant hill.

山为樽,水为沼,
Using the vale as cup and water as wine pools,

酒徒历历坐洲岛。
The tipplers sit on rocks as cosy as on stools.

长风连日作大浪,
The wind so strong has formed great waves from day to day:

不能废人运酒舫。
It can’t prevent the boats from bringing wine this way.

我持长瓢坐巴丘,
A ladle in my hand, I sit on rocky shore;

酌饮四坐以散愁。
To do away with care, we drink the wine I pour.

元结元次山,天宝进士,平安史之乱有功,出任道州刺史。
常与友人游于洞庭左近,悠哉游哉,却也政绩显著。
结尾说虽要散愁,其实通篇看下来,饮酒行乐的情趣是真,举杯消愁的姿态却近似无病呻吟的矫情了。

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共赏诗词之美(69)

江城子乙卯正月二十日夜记梦
Riverside Town Dreaming of My Deceased Wife on the Night of the 20th Day of the 1st Month
---苏轼
---Su Shi

十年生死两茫茫,
For ten long years the living of the dead knows nought.

不思量,自难忘。
Should the dead be forgot
And to mind never brought?

千里孤坟,
Her lonely grave is a thousand miles away.

无处话凄凉。
To whom can I my grief convey?

纵使相逢应不识:
Revived e’en if she be, could she still know me?

尘满面,鬓如霜。
My face is worn with care
And frosted is my hair.

夜来幽梦忽还乡。
Last night I dreamed of coming to my native place:

小轩窗,正梳妆。
She’s making up her face
At the window with grace.

相顾无言,
We gazed at each other hushed,

唯有泪千行。
But tears from our eyes gushed.

料得年年肠断处:
When I am woken, I fancy her heart-broken

明月夜,短松冈。
On the mound clad with pines,
Where only the moon shines.

自古以来的悼亡诗词,本人来回读过多次的有二。
说到诗的话当属元稹悼念亡妻的《遣悲怀三首》。其中有一句大家可能都熟悉“诚知此恨人人有,贫贱夫妻百事哀。”只是容易误解,以为是贫贱夫妻导致事事不顺心,惹人哀叹的意思,实则“谁不知夫妻永诀人人都会伤怀,想起许多往事令人极度地伤悲。”
至于词的话当然就是子瞻的这首江城子了,以心情与梦境,抒发自己对亡妻的深情,全篇白描,使人读后无不为之动情而感叹哀惋。

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共赏诗词之美(68)

观公孙大娘弟子舞剑器行 
Dance of a swordswoman
(selected verse片段选译)
---杜甫
---Du Fu

大历二年十月十九日,夔府别驾元持宅,见临颍李十二娘舞剑器,壮其蔚跂,问其所师,曰:“余公孙大娘弟子也。”开元三载,余尚童稚,记于郾城观公孙氏,舞剑器浑脱,浏漓顿挫,独出冠时,自高头宜春梨园二伎坊内人洎外供奉,晓是舞者,圣文神武皇帝初,公孙一人而已。玉貌锦衣,况余白首,今兹弟子,亦非盛颜。既辨其由来,知波澜莫二,抚事慷慨,聊为《剑器行》。昔者吴人张旭,善草书帖,数常于邺县见公孙大娘舞西河剑器,自此草书长进,豪荡感激,即公孙可知矣。
昔有佳人公孙氏,一舞剑器动四方。
Gungsun was a fair swordswoman of bygone days,
Her sword dance marveled by all men shed dazzling rays.

观者如山色沮丧,天地为之久低昂。
The lookers-on stood still as mountains fascinated;
Even the azure sky and earth seemed agitated.

霍如羿射九日落,矫如群帝骖龙翔。
They were astonished as if nine suns were shot down;
The dance looked like a scene by dragons overflown.

来如雷霆收震怒,罢如江海凝清光。
The dancer came as fleet as angry thunder’s roar,
And then it stopped as the sea raving no more.

绛唇珠袖两寂寞,晚有弟子传芬芳。
临颍美人在白帝,妙舞此曲神扬扬。
与余问答既有以,感时抚事增惋伤。
先帝侍女八千人,公孙剑器初第一。
五十年间似反掌,风尘澒洞昏王室。
梨园弟子散如烟,女乐馀姿映寒日。
金粟堆南木已拱,瞿唐石城草萧瑟。
玳筵急管曲复终,乐极哀来月东出。
老夫不知其所往,足茧荒山转愁疾。

这首七言古诗作于诗圣晚年,不同于中青年时期的“会当凌绝顶,一览众山小。”
这个阶段的诗人已是“艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,潦倒新停浊酒杯”穷困潦倒,颠沛流离的状态了。
杜甫坐在那里,看着李十二娘舞《剑器》,满眼却是在五十年前的开元时期欣赏她的恩师公孙大娘舞剑器时那种惊天地、泣鬼神的样子。
当时的诗人意气奋发,当时的先帝玄宗绝代风华,当时的盛唐国势强大。然则时过境迁,沧桑巨变,佳人空老,无限凄凉。
前半的欢愉场面有多热闹,后半的乐极哀来就有多感伤,字里行间寄托着诗人忆昔伤今的浩叹,令人不忍卒读。
诗中提到的两位人物重点介绍一下

公孙大娘:唐玄宗开元年间著名的教坊舞伎,一位象征着一个时代的艺术家,在唐玄宗亲自教授法曲的梨园弟子中名列第一。
张旭:与贺知章、张若虚、包融并称“吴中四士”,又与李白、贺知章、李适之、汝阳王李琎、崔宗之、苏晋、焦遂并称“饮中八仙”,其草书则与李白的诗歌、裴旻的剑舞并称“三绝”。

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共赏诗词之美(67)

江城子 孤山竹阁送述古
Riverside Town Farewell to Governor Chen at Bamboo Pavilion on Lonely Hill
---苏轼
---Su Shi

翠蛾羞黛怯人看,
Her eyebrows penciled dark, she feels shy to be seen.

掩霜纨,
Hidden behind a silken fan so green,

泪偷弹。
Stealthily she sheds tear on tear.

且尽一尊,
Let me drink farewell to you and hear

收泪唱《阳关》。
Her sing, with tears wiped away, her song of adieu.

漫道帝城天样远,
Do not say the imperial town is as far as the sky.

天易见,见君难。
It is easier to see the sun high
Than to meet you.

画堂新抅近孤山,
The newly built painted hall to Lonely Hill is near.

曲栏杆,为谁安?
For whom is made
The winding balustrade?

飞絮落花,
Falling flowers and willow down fly;

春色属明年。
Spring belongs to next year.

欲棹小舟寻旧事,
I try to row a boat to find the things gone by.

无处问,水连天。
O whom can I ask? In my eye
I only see water one with the sky.

大胡子以豪放词风闻名于世,正所谓“须关西大汉,铜琵琶,铁绰板,唱‘大江东去’”。
但其也有颇多婉约词作传世,这首江城子为杭州知州陈述古饯别所作,摹拟歌妓的语气,向陈襄表示惜别之意。
大家想象一下,女装大佬东坡公,簪花披红,浅吟低唱“天近人远见君难,水天茫茫思君难”的场景,是不是别有意趣。

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共赏诗词之美(66)

丹青引赠曹将军霸 
Pictures of horses
(selected verse片段选译)
---杜甫
---Du Fu

将军魏武之子孙,于今为庶为清门。
英雄割据虽已矣,文采风流今尚存。
学书初学卫夫人,但恨无过王右军。
丹青不知老将至,富贵于我如浮云。
Absorbed in painting, you know not old age is coming;
indeed, to me wealth and rank are like clouds scudding.

开元之中常引见,承恩数上南薰殿。
凌烟功臣少颜色,将军下笔开生面。
良相头上进贤冠,猛将腰间大羽箭。
褒公鄂公毛发动,英姿飒爽来酣战。
先帝御马五花骢,画工如山貌不同。
Piebald of Blooming Jade was the emperor’s steed,
Many painters have pictured it, but none succeed.

是日牵来赤墀下,迥立阊阖生长风。
When it was led before the flight of steps one day,
It outshone in the palace the dazzling array.

诏谓将军拂绢素,意匠惨淡经营中。
General Cao was ordered to paint it on the scroll,
As swift as wind, he tried to do with heart and soul.

斯须九重真龙出,一洗万古凡马空。
when a dragon appears in the celestial sphere,
How dare a snake or serpent boast to be his peer!

玉花却在御榻上,榻上庭前屹相向。
至尊含笑催赐金,圉人太仆皆惆怅。
弟子韩干早入室,亦能画马穷殊相。
干惟画肉不画骨,忍使骅骝气凋丧。
将军画善盖有神,必逢佳士亦写真。
即今漂泊干戈际,屡貌寻常行路人。
途穷反遭俗眼白,世上未有如公贫。
但看古来盛名下,终日坎壈缠其身。

诗圣的这首七言长韵古诗,端的雄伟宏放,最有名的句子应该就属“富贵于我如浮云”了,
其实这是一首为画家曹霸立传的诗,以诗摹写画意,评画论画,诗画结合,富有浓郁的诗情画意,把深邃的现实主义画论和诗传体的特写融为一炉,具有独特的美学意义。简单科普一下诗中的人文典故
曹霸,高宗时书画家,“每诏写御马及功臣,官至左武卫将军”,尤善画马,魏武后裔,有“文如植,武如操,字画抵丕风流”之美誉。
与杜甫于成都相遇时已是安史之后,沦为庶人,潦倒漂泊。
卫夫人,晋代著名的史上首位女书法家,擅长隶书及正书,书圣王羲之之师,有吃墨轶事。
王右军,即晋代书法家王羲之,官至右军将军。曹霸学书,从卫王二人。
凌烟,唐太宗为了褒奖文武开国功臣,于贞观十七年(643年)命阎立本等在凌烟阁画二十四功臣图
褒公,即段志玄,封褒国公。鄂公,即尉迟恭(尉迟敬德),二人同为凌烟阁二十四功臣,尉迟敬德与另一位功臣秦琼(秦叔宝)同为门神,过年时可不少见。
韩干,唐代名画家。善画人物,更擅长鞍马,曹霸之徒。

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共赏诗词之美(65)

定风波
Calming the Waves
---苏轼
---Su Shi

三月七日,沙湖道中遇雨。雨具先去,同行皆狼狈,余独不觉。已而遂晴,故作此。
On the 7th day of the 3rd month we were caught in rain on our way to the Sandy Lake. The umbrellas had gone ahead, my companions were quite downhearted, but I took no notice. It soon cleared, and I wrote this.

莫听穿林打叶声。
Listen not to the rain beating against the trees,

何妨吟啸且徐行。
I had better walk slowly while chanting at ease.

竹杖芒鞋轻胜马,
Better than a saddle I like sandals and cane.

谁怕!
一簑烟雨任平生。
O I would Fain,
In a straw cloak, spend my life in mist and rain.
料峭春风吹酒醒,
微冷。
Drunken, I am sobered by the vernal wind shrill
And rather chill

山头斜照却相迎。
In front, I see the slanting sun atop the hill;

回首向来萧瑟处,
Turning my head, I see the dreary beaten track.

归去。
也无风雨也无晴。
Let me go back!
Impervious to wind, rain or shine, I’ll  have my own will.

接下来几天分享的宋词,都来自我和小朋友最为心水的苏大胡子,
今天的定风波,刚好又是大胡子词作中我俩最为推崇的一首。
上片写雨中,契合年轻人的打拼,
谁怕!一簑烟雨任平生。
下片来到风雨过后,尽显历经世事的通达明了。
归去,也无风雨也无晴。
完美展现了这位吃货的旷达豪放与超凡脱俗。
当然后话得补一句:余独不觉,携风雨同行的做派是潇洒的,
回家后大病数日的结果也是必然的。
喝着酒,吹着风,淋着雨,装着X。
你不病谁病。。。

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共赏诗词之美(64)

白雪歌送武判官归京
Song of white snow in farewell to secretary Wu going back to the capital
---岑参
---Cen Shen

北风卷地白草折,胡天八月即飞雪。
Snapping the pallid grass, the northern wind whirls low;
In the eighth moon the Tartar sky is filled with snow.

忽如一夜春风来,千树万树梨花开。
As if the vernal breeze had come back overnight,
Adorning thousands of pear trees with blossoms white.

散入珠帘湿罗幕,狐裘不暖锦衾薄。
Flakes enter pearled blinds and wet the silken screen;
No furs of fox can warm us nor brocade quilts green.

将军角弓不得控,都护铁衣冷难着。
The general cannot draw his rigid bow with ease;
E’en the commissioner in coat of mail would freeze.

瀚海阑干百丈冰,愁云惨淡万里凝。
A thousand feet o’er cracked wilderness ice piles,
And gloomy clouds hang sad and drear for miles and miles.

中军置酒饮归客,胡琴琵琶与羌笛。
We drink in headquarters to our guest homeward bound;
With Tartar lutes, pipas and pipes the camps resound.

纷纷暮雪下辕门,风掣红旗冻不翻。
Snow in huge flakes at dusk falls heavy on camp gate;
The frozen red flag in the wind won’t undulate.

轮台东门送君去,去时雪满天山路。
At eastern gate of wheel tower we bid goodbye
On the snow-covered road to heaven’s mountain high.

山回路转不见君,雪上空留马行处。
I watch his horse go past a bend and, lost to sight,
His track will soon be buried up by snow in flight.

武判官其人,原名武就,天宝年间制举出身,安史时期与岑参同为北庭都护的幕僚判官。
肃宗时期,武就奉召归京,被委以重任,这对岑参来说,其实是百感交集的。既为朋友高兴,心中也不乏苦楚。
字里行间,有奇丽多变的雪景,有抑扬顿挫的韵律,有慷慨悲壮,也有浑然雄劲。

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共赏诗词之美(63)

蝶恋花
Butterflies in love with flowers
---苏轼
---Su Shi

花褪残红青杏小。
Red flowers fade, green apricots appear still small,

燕子飞时,绿水人家绕。
When swallows pass
Over blue water that surrounds the garden wall.

枝上柳绵吹又少。天涯何处无芳草。
Most willow catkins have been blown away, alas!
But there is no place where grows no sweet grass.
墙里秋千墙外道。
Without the wall there is a path, within a swing.

墙外行人,墙里佳人笑。
A passer-by
Hears a fair maiden’s laughter in the garden ring.

笑渐不闻声渐悄。多情却被无情恼。
The ringing laughter fades to silence by and by;
For the enchantress the enchanted can only sigh.

天涯何处无芳草, 此心安处是吾乡.
东坡的这段心路,于清新中蕴涵哀怨,于婉丽中透出伤情,意境朦胧,韵味无穷。

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